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ISBN-10: 0080576761

ISBN-13: 9780080576763

ISBN-10: 0120145154

ISBN-13: 9780120145157

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Not occur (7, l a ) . This tends t o concentrate the atoms effusing from the source within a smaller solid angle with a saving of oven material, in this case, cesium. The channeled source also tends to reduce the number of slow atoms detected because of this concentration of the beam-at least if the oven and detector are placed on the axis of the machine in the usual way. The geometry of the apparatus will affect the velocity distribution. If the deflecting magnet pole shoes are too close together, the slow atoms that could be detected will be eliminated from the beam and the spectral line will be broad.

We choose the coordinate system where z is positive above the axis and negative below (Fig. 8b). The acceleration a is different from zero only in the regions 2 and 5 where the field in nonuniform. Integration of Eq. (31) yields (32) and (33) where vzi is the transverse velocity that the atom has as it enters the ith region, zi is the z-coordinate of the particle as it enters this region, and 1 is the time spent in this region. Atoms effuse from the source slit in all forward directions. Consider atoms emitted from the source with speed v and a t an angle 0 with respect to the center line of the machine.

2 sec for typical current values). A simplified model of an electrometer circuit is shown in Fig. 17. 17. Simplified electrometer circuit for the detection of atomic beelri ion currents us consider the noise in such a circuit. We will neglect the noise resulting from beam fluctuations and impurity ions boiled off the detector wire. The important sources of noise remaining are the Brownian motion of electricity in the grid circuit and the shot noise of the grid current. Using that the mean the Schottky and Nyquist relations, it can be shown (19,20) squared deviation of the grid current is given by so long as the time constant r of the galvanometer is much less than the time constant, R,C,, of the grid circuit.

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Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 15


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