By Richard Schulz PhD, George Maddox PhD, M. Powell Lawton PhD
Makes a speciality of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for melancholy, remedies of late-life insomnia, habit interventions in nursing houses, interventions for incontinence, and residential amendment interventions. For clinicians and researchers.
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Extra resources for Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Volume 18, 1998: Focus on Interventions Research With Older Adults
This is best accomplished with session-by-session outlines containing enough information for the provider to follow each step of the procedures with each participant. Manuals also need to describe the theoretical underpinnings of the technique in sufficient detail so as to give providers the necessary guidance to deduce what interventions should be employed in any given situation. These two elements provide specific methods to be used while allowing providers the freedom necessary to respond to idiosyncratic events in the session without risking violations in the protocol.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 37 The ideal method involves the use of two independent interviews by well-trained clinical assessment staff. Deviations from this approach, such as checking only a sample of cases for reliability of diagnosis, may be acceptable for diagnostic categories previously shown to have high diagnostic reliability. Conversely, disorders with particularly low reliability would more likely require dual interviews for each client. Although checking for diagnostic reliability by having an assessor listen to a recording of another assessor's interview is a practical approach, this strategy does not address the concern that clients may respond differently to questions after their initial interview.
This lack of experimental control leaves differential outcome findings very difficult to interpret, as many alternative hypotheses cannot be ruled out. As Kazdin (1986) pointed out, often these studies are carried out before the optimal parameters for an intervention are empirically identified. Therefore, differential outcomes could be attributed to the parameters of the interventions used in a study as opposed to true superiority of one therapeutic approach over another. Eysenck (1994) further argued that the differing relevance of treatment parameters and dependent measures to each intervention approach stem from the different "scientific paradigms" or methods of acquiring and interpreting knowledge underlying each intervention.
Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Volume 18, 1998: Focus on Interventions Research With Older Adults by Richard Schulz PhD, George Maddox PhD, M. Powell Lawton PhD