By B.B.S. Singhal †, R.P. Gupta
Hydrogeology is a topical and growing to be topic because the earth's water assets turn into scarcer and extra weak. greater than half the skin quarter of continents is roofed with tough rocks of low permiability.
This e-book offers comprehensively with the basic rules for knowing the hydrogeological features of rocks, in addition to exploration strategies and evaluation. It additionally presents intensive dialogue on structural mapping, distant sensing, geophysical exploration, GIS, groundwater stream modelling and contaminant delivery, box hydraulic trying out together with tracer exams, groundwater caliber, geothermal reservoirs, controlled aquifer recharge, and assets review and management.
Hydrogeological facets of varied lithology teams, together with crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, carbonate rocks and clastic formations were handled individually, utilizing and discussing examples from worldwide. it will likely be a useful textual content ebook cum reference resource for postgraduate scholars, researchers, exploration scientists and engineers engaged within the box of groundwater improvement in fractured rocks.
Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks - moment version is punctiliously revised and prolonged with a brand new bankruptcy, up to date sections, many new examples, and improved and up to date references.
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Extra info for Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks
An observation weil network is established for monitoring groundwater levels and groundwater quality. For estimating hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, pumping tests and tracer injection tests are carri ed out. 0 125-250 and at piaces 688-812 Resistant sandstone strata of the Appalachian Plateau Rocks of moderate resistance in humid central and eastern USA Strongl y fractured and deeply weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks in southern California under dry summer and sub-tropical conditions In bad land developed on weak cIays, barren of vegetation nant transport.
1. 19) . Scanlines are usually horizontal; however, vertical scanlines are preferred where fractures are mostly horizontal. A suitable rock exposure or face is selected. A sample scanline is marked on the face, and its orientation (rake on the face) is recorded. Fractures intersecting the line are collected, and each fracture is represented by its trace which can be measured. Observations are made for various parameters, such as: location of the fracture trace interseetion with the scanline; orientation of the fracture and angle made with the scanline; termination type if seen and connectivity; alternatively, whether the fracture extends beyond the top of the face/batter; fracture type and other relevant fracture characteristics.
L, sin (}i. Hence, 3D fracture density is: d3 =_1_ (i~) =! 20 Areal method of discontinuity survey. angle and fracture trace length. If all the frac tures have the same trace length, then I is constant. For parallel fractures, (}i can be replaced by (). For example, in an area in Bundelkhand granites (India), the 3D fracture density was computed using the scanline method at 64 observation sites . It is observed that d, in the area varies generally from about 6 nr' to 21 rrr' , whereas there are smaller pockets of higher values of d 3, of the order of 31 rrr".
Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks by B.B.S. Singhal †, R.P. Gupta