By B.B.S. Singhal †, R.P. Gupta
Hydrogeology is a topical and growing to be topic because the earth's water assets turn into scarcer and extra susceptible. greater than 1/2 the skin quarter of continents is roofed with demanding rocks of low permiability. This publication bargains comprehensively with the elemental rules for figuring out the hydrogeological features of rocks, in addition to exploration recommendations and review. It additionally offers intensive dialogue on structural mapping, distant sensing, geophysical exploration, GIS, groundwater movement modelling and contaminant delivery, box hydraulic checking out together with tracer exams, groundwater caliber, geothermal reservoirs, controlled aquifer recharge, and assets evaluate and administration. Hydrogeological elements of assorted lithology teams, together with crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, carbonate rocks and clastic formations were handled individually, utilizing and discussing examples from worldwide. it is going to be a useful textual content ebook cum reference resource for postgraduate scholars, researchers, exploration scientists and engineers engaged within the box of groundwater improvement in fractured rocks. utilized Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks - moment version is punctiliously revised and prolonged with a brand new bankruptcy, up-to-date sections, many new examples, and extended and up-to-date references. viewers: This booklet may be a useful textual content ebook cum reference resource for postgraduate scholars, researchers, exploration scientists and engineers engaged within the box of groundwater improvement in fractured rocks. From the stories of the former version: "In all, utilized Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks is helping fill the necessity for a primer in fractured rocks hydrology. it's going to turn out quite worthwhile to experts faced with fractured rock platforms, and are wanting a few pointers." (M. Becker, Hydrogeology magazine (2002) 10: 600)
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Additional info for Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks: Second Edition
1. The concept of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) is very important and may be introduced here. REV is the minimum rock mass volume which has the hydraulic and or mechanical properties similar to those of the rock mass. For mechanical properties, a sample size of a few cubic meters may be sufficient for approaching a REV; however, in case of hydraulic flow, REV may be substantially larger, and in some cases, it may not even exist due to strong anisotropy and spatial variability of rock characters.
Their relation with the host rocks could be concordant, transgressive, or discordant. The igneous plutonic bodies crystallize under high pressure and temperature; they are devoid of primary porosity. 5 Other Geological Discontinuities In addition to the above structural features, there could be other geological boundaries such as unconformities and intrusive contacts which may act as discontinuities. Unconformity is a surface of erosion and nondeposition separating overlying younger strata from the underlying older rocks.
12). In the case of a normal fault, hanging wall moves relatively downward. Normal faults are generally high-angle faults caused when σ1 is vertical. 2 Discontinuities—Types, Genetic Relations and Significance 21 Fig. 12 The basic genetic types of faults: a normal, b reverse and c strike-slip. Orientations of principal compressive stresses are also shown a b c σ1 σ2 σ3 σ2 σ3 σ3 σ2 σ3 σ2 σ1 σ1 σ2 σ1 σ1 σ3 σ3 σ2 σ1 σ1 Vertical caused when σ3 is vertical. It is characterised by the relative upward movement of the hanging wall.
Applied Hydrogeology of Fractured Rocks: Second Edition by B.B.S. Singhal †, R.P. Gupta