By Robert E. Huffman
This ebook is an creation to using the ultraviolet for distant sensing of the Earth's surroundings. It covers the Earth's UV radiative atmosphere, experimental ideas, and present functions. it's my goal to supply the knowledge had to "make a primary approximation" about the use of the ultraviolet and to supply entry in the course of the literature for a extra thorough research. * includes contemporary UV functions no longer formerly on hand in publication shape resembling ozone, auroral pictures, and ionospheric sensing* good points extensive assurance of basics of atmospheric geophysics with values for fluxes, cross-sections, and radiances* Covers innovations that illustrate ideas of measurements with general values* comprises quite a few references to unique literature
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The transmission peak and shape of interference filters change as the incident angle of the radiation changes, and for divergent or convergent rays, the best approach is a calibration as it will be flown. CHAPTER 4. SENSORS 40 A photometer of this type can be very sensitive when observing an extended source such as the airglow, and a wide dynamic range can be achieved using the aperture wheel. 0 nm: 143; and no filter: 6250. Thus, radiance values of less than a Rayleigh measured in less than a second are possible.
The dark count may be decreased greatly by cooling the sensor, if necessary. Both dark count, or current, and the background counts may be sufficiently large to require some type of phase sensitive detection or "light 32 CHAPTER 3. RADIOMETRY chopper". In this way, the signal can be seen above a large, steady level due to background and dark current contributions. Although it can be employed if needed, the use of phase sensitive detection is not common in the ultraviolet. Miscellaneous counts, C M, may come from the space radiation environment encountered by a satellite, such as in the South Atlantic anomaly or in the particle precipitation regions that form the auroral zone; from light scattered into the detector from a bright out-of-field source such as the sun or an antenna or other spacecraft structure that scatters sunlight into the sensor; from on board radio frequency interference (RFI), which is due to voltage transients from other spacecraft equipment that are coupled into the detector electronics and appear as counts; or possibly from other causes.
Is again in electron Volts and A is in A. 4 eV. 1. The range 400 to 10 nm covers approximately 3 to 120 eV. Photoabsorption and photoemission processes involving atmospheric atoms and molecules at these energies are associated with excitation to upper states, photodissociation, and photoionization. The radiant flux in a given wavelength interval ~A can be given in watts, which is joules per second, or in photons per second. 4) In this equation, W is in watts, A is in Angstroms, and 11> is in photons per second.
Atmospheric ultraviolet remote sensing by Robert E. Huffman