By José Ignacio Hualde
This booklet is the 1st entire remedy of the phonological procedure of Basque to be had in English. Basque is a morphologically wealthy and reasonably usual language with a couple of energetic phonological ideas which are restricted to definite morphological environments. moreover, it has a excessive measure of dialectical fragmentation. those features of Basque make this language an excellent attempt floor to enquire the interplay of phonological ideas either with one another and with morphological tactics, which the writer does in the Lexical Phonology framework. the results of rule interplay on function geometry are an incredible obstacle - how phonological operations alter underlying constructions and the way the buildings created through one phonological rule can function enter to different ideas. those results are tested in a learn of the quite bizarre behaviour of Basque affricates. one other quarter which calls for specific cognizance, and during which Basque dialects vary largely, is prosody. besides stress-accent structures of alternative forms, Basque additionally possesses pitch-accent or limited tonal structures in a few of its western dialects. This booklet might be of curiosity to complex scholars and academics of linguistics, particularly Romance linguistics and lexical phonology.
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Extra resources for Basque Phonology
The rule does not apply in /fabrika/ [faprika], not *[faprike] 'factory' or /aita/ [aica] 'father'. Thus, unlike in Baztan, the underlying representation of such words is not at issue. As in Baztan, on the other hand, words of this type containing stem-final /iC„a/, /uC„a/ sequences provide evidence for the ordering of the rules of Low Vowel Assimilation and Stem-Final Low Vowel Deletion. This cannot be seen in absolutive singular forms such as /fabrika-a/ [fa|3rika], because Low Vowel Assimilation does not apply here; but can be seen in other cases such as the absolutive plural /fabřika-ak/ [fap7ikek].
Even these groups seem to have been disallowed in earlier stages of the language and are still relatively rare. Old borrowings from Latin and Romance show consistent simplification of these clusters, either by epenthesis as in liburu < libru 'book', keleta < cleta 'gate', gurutze < cruce 'cross', etc. 3 In a coda, the clusters in (5) are found: presl 'ready' beran/ 'late' mendiranzko 'bound for the mountain' uni: 'resemblance' Bilinnr 'a name' son-/k/ Ixonoxl 'an interjection' bar/ 'last night' herrte 'closure' borfz 'five' Laxa/i 'a name' be/ztu 'blacken' bellz 'black' bellx 'blackish' nor/c 'who (erg)' These are all groups of two coronals, with the exception of the group /-rk/, which arises from the affixation of /-k/ to rhotic-final stems.
Mid Vowel Raising The derivations in (28) show that Low Vowel Assimilation must follow Stem-Final Low Vowel Deletion. The examples in (23)-(24) show that Low Vowel Assimilation is ordered before Mid Vowel Raising in Baztan. Finally, we concluded that the results in (31) could be obtained ordering Palatalization before Low Vowel Assimilation if palatal consonants constitute optional triggers for Low Vowel Assimilation, but that they could also be obtained allowing both rules to interact in either order.
Basque Phonology by José Ignacio Hualde