By Adele Reinhartz
Adele Reinhartz has been learning and instructing the Gospel of John for a few years. past, she selected to disregard the love/hate dating that the publication provokes in her, a Jew, and took safe haven in an "objective" historical-critical procedure. At this degree her dating to the Gospel was once no longer a lot a friendship as a company courting. now not prepared to disregard the detrimental portrayal of Jews and Judaism within the textual content, nor the perception that her personal Jewish id unavoidably does play a job in her paintings as an exegete, Reinhartz right here explores the Fourth Gospel during the technique often called "ethical criticism," that's in line with the metaphorical inspiration of the e-book as "friend"--not "an effortless, unquestioning companionship," however the type of sincere courting during which moral concerns are addressed, now not refrained from. In a publication as multilayered because the Gospel itself, Reinhartz engages in four assorted "readings" of the Fourth Gospel: compliant, resistant, sympathetic, and engaged. each one method perspectives the cherished Disciple otherwise: as mentor, opponent, colleague, and as "other." during every one of those readings, she elucidates the 3 narrative degrees that interpenetrate the Gospel: the ancient, the cosmological, and the ecclesiological. within the latter, Reinhartz offers at size with the so-called expulsion idea, the dominant scholarly thought that the Johannine group, which incorporated believers of Jewish, Gentile, and Samaritan origins, engaged in a chronic and violent controversy with the neighborhood Jewish neighborhood, culminating in a "traumatic expulsion from the synagogue.">
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Additional info for Befriending The Beloved Disciple: A Jewish Reading of the Gospel of John
Who then were the Jews "who had agreed" (9:22) to the exclusion policy and carried it out? 38 Other critics, such as Urban C. 39 In this way, 11:45-47 distinguishes between ordinary Jews who had witnessed the raising of Lazarus, and the authorities, described as Pharisees and chief priests, who learn of this act from others. A similar distinction is operative in chapter 9, in which the loudaioi of 9:18 are identified as the Pharisees of 9:16 and as the agents of expulsion in 9:22. These Pharisees are then the colleagues of those who, along with their priestly comrades, lament the desertion of the Jews in 11:45-47 and 12:9-11.
R E A D I N G AS R E L A T I O N S H I P 29 must acknowledge those in all arenas who are other to me, whose otherness poses a problem for me and the way in which I attempt to live in the world. In my own experience, living as an Other can entail two different positions from which to forge friendship, or at least a respectful relationship, with those who are other to me. One is to focus on the elements that unite me with others while ignoring the aspects that divide us. This may be termed a sympathetic position, in the sense that I attempt to understand and sympathize with the life of the Other in a way that resonates with my own.
34 Others such as C. K. 35 Hence the man is ejected not for uttering a confession but for aligning himself with Jesus. He achieves this alignment by identifying himself obliquely as a disciple (9:28). Therefore exclusion is not a consequence of formal confession per se, but rather of known allegiance to Jesus (on the primary reading level) and of known membership or participation in the Johannine community (on the second reading level). The parallels with John 11:1-44 are easily drawn. In Bethany too the central issue is healing.
Befriending The Beloved Disciple: A Jewish Reading of the Gospel of John by Adele Reinhartz